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Track 01Advanced Vaccine Technology and Engineering
DNA and other gene-based vaccines represent a recent technological advance for making vaccines and immunotherapeutics directed against a variety of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. They arose from efforts to specifically harness the T cellarm of immune responses, in addition to the B cell, or antibody, mediated responses which are more traditionally measured by existing licensed vaccines.
Track 02Vaccine Production and Immunization
Vaccines are produced in large scale as they need to be administered to large populations of children and adults to be effective as a public health tool. This large scale production is often a challenge. The goal of public health is to prevent disease. It's much easier and more cost-effective to prevent a disease than to treat it. That's exactly what immunizations aim to do. Immunizations, or vaccines as they're also known, safely and effectively use a small amount of a weakened or killed virus or bacteria or bits of lab-made protein that imitate the virus in order to prevent infection by that same virus or bacteria.
Track 03Immunology and Pathology
Immunopathology is a branch of medicine that deals with immune responses associated with the disease. It incorporates the investigation of the pathology of a life form, organ framework, or ailment concerning the insusceptible framework, invulnerability, and resistant reactions. In science, it alludes to the harm caused to a creature by its own resistant reaction, because of a contamination. Two decade of clinical involvement with immunomodulatory medicines for various sclerosis points to unmistakable immunological pathways that drive ailment backslides and movement. Immunopathology could allude to how the outside antigens cause the invulnerable framework to have a reaction or issues that can emerge from a living being's own particular resistant reaction on itself. There are sure issues or blames in the invulnerable framework that can prompt more genuine sickness or malady.
Track 04DNA Vaccines
DNA vaccination is a technique for protecting against disease by injection with genetically engineered DNA so cells directly produce an antigen, producing a protective immunological response. The field of DNA vaccination is developing rapidly. Vaccines currently being developed use not only DNA, but also include adjuncts that assist DNA to enter cells, target it towards specific cells, or that may act as adjuvants in stimulating or directing the immune response. Ultimately, the distinction between a sophisticated DNA vaccine and a simple viral vector may not be clear. Many aspects of the immune response generated by DNA vaccines are not understood. However, this has not impeded significant progress towards the use of this type of vaccine in humans, and clinical trials have begun.
Track 05Immunological Disorders
Immune system disorders cause abnormally low activity or overactivity of the immune system. In cases of immune system overactivity, the body attacks and damages its own tissues (autoimmune diseases). Immune deficiency diseases decrease the body's ability to fight invaders, causing vulnerability to infections. In excess of 80 diseases happen because of the immune system assaulting the body's own organs, tissues, and cells. Some of the more common autoimmune diseases include type 1diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the fact that the reasons for some immune system diseases stay obscure, a man's genes in a mix with contaminations and other environmental exposures are probably going to assume a critical part in disease improvement. Treatments are available for many autoimmune diseases, but cures have yet to be discovered.
Track 06Bioinformatics in Vaccine Design
Development of computer methods in molecular biology and fast growth of microbial genomics data enabled new approach based on selecting in silico antigenic components to design vaccine constructs. It is expected that application of this technology will eliminate side effects of new vaccines and reduce the time consumption and financial expenses. The bioinformatics methods of sequence analysis are used to reveal the most prospective proteins or protein fragments of infectious agents as candidates for vaccine design. In these studies the specialized molecular immunology databases are widely used. The new approach ("Reverse vaccinology") could help in designing vaccines against diseases where traditional methods are not successful, e.g. when the viral genome reveals the extreme variability and permanent changes of antigenic properties that make difficulties for selection of molecular targets for medicines and candidate vaccines. A number of informational resources are already designed to collect and provide genomic data on certain microbes or viruses. The peculiarity of such resources is presentation of data, characterizing the different genomic variants of the same infectious agents. These structural data coupled with information on functional/immune features and software tools have to compose basis for constructing a new generation of vaccines against "common" and new infections such as AIDS, Hepatitis C, and SARS.
Track 07Viral Immunology
Viruses are firmly immunogenic and actuate two sorts of resistant reactions; humoral and cellular. The collection of specificities of T and B cells are framed by modifications and substantial transformations. T and B cells don't, for the most part, perceive similar epitopes present on a similar infection. B cells see the free unaltered proteins in their local 3-D adaptation though T cells typically observe the Ag in a denatured frame related to MHC atoms. The qualities of the resistant response to a similar infection may vary in various people contingent upon their hereditary constitutions.Humoral response is in charge of obstructing the infectivity of the infection (balance). Those of the IgM and IgG class are particularly significant for resistance against viral diseases joined by viremia, while those of the IgA class are vital in contaminations procured through a mucosa. (the nose, the digestive tract) interestingly, the cell reaction kills the infection tainted cells communicating viral proteins on their surfaces, for example, the glycoproteins of wrapped infections and some of the time center proteins of these infections.
Track 08Veterinary & Plant-Based Vaccines
The production of recombinant vaccines in plants may help to reduce the burden of veterinary diseases, which cause major economic losses and in some cases can affect human health. While there is abundant research in this area, a knowledge gap exists between the ability to create and evaluate plant-based products in the laboratory, and the ability to take these products on a path to commercialization.
During the past two decades, antibodies, antibody derivatives and vaccines have been developed for therapeutic and diagnostic applications in human and veterinary medicine. Numerous species of dicot and monocot plants have been genetically modified to produce antibodies or vaccines, and a number of diverse transformation methods and strategies to enhance the accumulation of the pharmaceutical proteins are now available.
Several vaccine types can de distinguished among the second-generation veterinary vaccines, depending whether they are live or inactivated, according to the strain of rabies virus used and the characteristics of the cell substrate chosen for viral replication. Considerable progress has been made in the production of rabies vaccines whether live or inactivated for animal use during the past two decades with the increasing use of continuous cell lines as a substrate and adoption of the fermentor technology for antigen production. These vaccines are produced for administration to domestic animals or wild species by parenteral or oral routes according to vaccine characteristics.Highly immunogenic inactivated cell culture vaccines for immunization of dogs via the parenteral route are now widely available on the international market at a cost affordable to more and more dog owners in the developing world. In addition the trend towards transfer or acquisition of modern cell culture technology for parenteral veterinary vaccine production is increasing in developing countries particularly in Asia.
Track 09Immunotherapy and immunodiagnostics
Immunotherapy is a diagnostic method that involves either enhancement of the immune system or the hindering of the immune system. Immunotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatment for cancer. Immunotherapies are of two types, activation immunotherapies and suppression immune therapies. Immunotherapies have been proved to treat various kinds of tumours. Immunotherapies used in caner are mostly biological therapies, that is, they use substances made from living organisms. Checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive cell transfer, monoclonal antibodies etc are the types of immunotherapy that are used in cancer. Immunodiagnostics are a group of clinical diagnostics which uses diagnostic techniques that make use of the immune system of the body. It plays a major role in understanding about various diseases in humans. These tests come in different types as they can be performed on serum. The techniques are easy to perform and decipher the diseased state of a person. New immunoassay formats and diagnostics are being introduced daily. Microfluidics is another prominent advancement in immunodiagnostics and have led to the discovery of microfluidic chips and rapid immunoassays.
Track 10Vaccines for Neurodegenerative Disorders
Neurodegenerative disorders are becoming increasingly common and an ever greater healthcare burden, as the average age in Western populations rises. Many of these are conformational disorders, which are characterized by the accumulation of a host protein that undergoes a structural change increasing its beta-sheet content, rendering it toxic. The most common of these illnesses is Alzheimer's disease. Prion diseases are also conformational disorders, which are currently less common than Alzheimer's disease, however, these illnesses have no treatment and are universally rapidly fatal.Neurodegenerative conditions share common primary risk factors and mediators of disease progression. Because many degenerative disorders are age related, deteriorating immunity in aging patients might impose additional risk. Adaptive (T-cell-mediated) immunity is a defense mechanism that instructs microglia to fight off and clear away self-derived enemies. Such adaptive immunity can be boosted, without risking the development of autoimmune disease, by injecting weak agonists of self-antigens or by weakening the suppressive CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. If widely cross-reactive, the agonist might effectively counteract a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Boosting of relevant T cells by vaccination could thus ‘recharge’ a deteriorating immune system that has to contend with an increasing number of risk factors.
Track 11Applied immunology, Ocular immunology and Immunoreceptors
Applied immunology is a subbranch of immunology that provides support for the development of biological therapeutics like monoclonal antibodies, vaccines and diagnostics. Applied immunology plays major roles in detection of antibody for diagnostic purposes and detection of toxins. Identification of human blood and seminal strains ae two of the most important forensic applications. Ocular immunology is a branch that diagnoses and treats people with inflammatory eye diseases. The patient may end up with a reduced vision and in some cases these diseases can leas to severe video loss. The immunologically mediated diseases include uveitis, intraocular inflammation, scleritis and iritis. However, the eye is blessed immunologically as the allografts are accepted by the cornea. The ocular surface fights infections with an integrated immunological mechanism. This integrated immune protection includes parts of humoral, cellular, adaptive, and innate immunity in tears, conjunctiva and even the cornea. Immunoreceptors are the sites on the surface of the antibodies where the antigen binds, the antigen binds to the antibody just the way a key fit into the lock. A chain of reactions starts once the antibody and antigen binds at the immunoreceptors. Receptors like the pattern recognition receptors plays an important role by recognizing the molecules that are exclusively pathogenic. Whereas a high level of immune receptors can cause negative effects like the inappropriate activation of signalling pathways. So, the abundance of too many immune receptors are regulated in a negative aspect. The immune receptors in plants recognizes the pathogenic bacteria and fungi and activates the mechanism to destroy them.
Track 12Ebola virus and vaccine development
Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. More surveillance data and research are needed on the risks of sexual transmission, and particularly on the prevalence of viable and transmissible virus in semen over time. The average EVD case fatality rate is around 50%. Case fatality rates have varied from 25% to 90% in past outbreaks. The first EVD outbreaks occurred in remote villages in Central Africa, near tropical rainforests. The 2014–2016 outbreak in West Africa involved major urban areas as well as rural ones.Early supportive care with rehydration, symptomatic treatment improves survival. There is as yet no licensed treatment proven to neutralize the virus but a range of blood, immunological and drug therapies are under development.
Track 13Antigens and Antibodies
Antigens are foreign bodies that can create an immune response and are bound by the antibodies. Each antigen is designed in a unique way to match an antigen. Once the body is exposed to an antigen, the B cells in the immune system produces the Y shaped antibodies. The antigen binds to its antibody just the way a key fit in to the lock and the antigen gets removed from the body. The antigens present in vaccinations activate or stimulate the B lymphocytes. After the stimulation, plasma cells are formed which releases the antibody for the disease. There five kinds of antibodies and three kinds of antigens.
Track 14Cancer vaccines and cancer immunology
Some types of cancer, such as cervical cancer and some liver cancers, are caused by viruses (oncoviruses). Traditional vaccines against those viruses, such as HPV vaccine and hepatitis B vaccine, prevent those types of cancer. Cancer treatment vaccines are different from the vaccines that work against viruses. These vaccines try to get the immune system to mount an attack against cancer cells in the body. Instead of preventing disease, they are meant to get the immune system to attack a disease that already exists. Some cancer treatment vaccines are made up of cancer cells, parts of cells, or pure antigens. Sometimes a patient’s own immune cells are removed and exposed to these substances in the lab to create the vaccine. Once the vaccine is ready, it’s injected into the body to increase the immune response against cancer cells. Vaccines are often combined with other substances or cells called adjuvants that help boost the immune response even further. The role played by the immune system during various phases of cancer is referred to as cancer immunology. One of the most common application is the immunotherapy. It also includes cancer immunoediting which is the study of the interaction between the immune system and the cancer cells. The antigens in the tumours are recognised by the immune system and this in turn activates an immune response. The antigens can either be tumour specific antigens or tumour associated antigens. Usually the tumour associated antigens are found in healthy cells but they are also present in the tumour cells as well.
Track 15Immunotoxicology and Immunosuppression
Immunotoxicology can be referred to as the study of the inimical effects on the immune system by direct or indirect agents. These agents can chemical, biological and physical in nature. The immune responses to such agents can lead to adverse effects. It can be of two types. It either involves the toxic effects on the immune system or the mediation of a toxic effect by the immune system. Immune toxicity can be induced by agents like dexamethasone, cyclosporin A, azathioprine, heavy metals and air pollution. It may also result in hypersensitivity and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression is the process by which the activity of the immune system is hindered. During organ/tissue transplant, there is a chance of organ/tissue rejection by the immune system of the body. In such cases the patient is asked to take immunosuppressive drugs. Certain parts of the immune system are found to exhibit immunosuppressive effects on other regions of the immune system. Another ill effect of immunosuppressive drugs is that sometimes they leave the patient with various side effects or make them prone to different diseases. The patients undergoing immunosuppression or who takes immunosuppressive drugs are known as immunocompromised.
Track 16Vaccine Specific: Zika viruses, Bacterial vaccines, HIV Vaccines, Malarial Vaccines
Zika virus disease is a rapidly spreading, emerging infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes carrying the Zika virus (ZIKV). The rapid spread of ZIKV, its association with abnormal fetal brain development and lack of a preventive vaccine constitute a global health emergency. ZIKV belongs to the flaviviridae family which also include, dengue and yellow fever viruses. Bacterial vaccines contain killed or attenuated bacteria that activate the immune system. Antibodies are built against that particular bacteria, and prevents bacterial infection later. An example of a bacterial vaccine is the Tuberculosis vaccine. An HIV vaccine is a vaccine which would either protect individuals who do not have HIV from contracting that virus, or otherwise may have a therapeutic effect for persons who have or later contract HIV/AIDS. Developing safe, effective, and affordable vaccines that can prevent HIV infection in uninfected people is the best hope for controlling and ultimately ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The long-term goal is to develop a safe and effective vaccine that protects people worldwide from getting infected with HIV. Despite many decades of intense research and development effort, there is no commercially available malaria vaccine at the present time. RTS,S/AS01 is the most advanced vaccine candidate against the most deadly form of human malaria, P. falciparum. More than 20 other vaccine constructs are currently being evaluated in clinical trials or are in advanced preclinical development.
Neuroimmunology is an integration of neuroscience and immunology. In neuroimmunology the interactions between the nervous system and the immune system is observed at different phases. The contributions of neuroimmunology help in the discovery of new pharmacological treatments. During infections, activated macrophages and monocytes release pro inflammatory cytokines. These pro inflammatory cytokines affect the behaviour, sleep and mood. The overall body health can be dictated by various interactions between the nervous system and the immune system.
Track 18Human vaccines - infectious diseases and non-infectious diseases
A vaccine is an inactivated form of bacteria or virus that is injected into the body to simulate an actual infection. Because the injected microorganisms are 'dead,' they don't cause a person to become sick. Instead, vaccines stimulate an immune response by the body that will fight off that type of illness. It covers infectious disease targets and non-infectious disease targets. To generate vaccine-mediated protection is a complex challenge. Currently available vaccines have largely been developed empirically, with little or no understanding on how they activate the immune system. Their early protective efficacy is primarily conferred by the induction of antigen-specific antibodies.Vaccines trick the body into build immunity against infectious diseases without causing the actual disease. Vaccines achieve this by introducing a dead or weakened version of the disease-causing germ (bacteria or virus) to the body’s immune system. After vaccination, if our immune system encounters the ‘real’ disease-causing germ, quick recognition allows our body to fight infection or neutralise toxins with a rapid and effective immune response.
Track 19Virus and VLP Bioprocessing
VLPs are small particles that contain multiprotein components which can be an envelope or capsid from the outer coating of a virus. Virus like particles (VLPs), however, doesn’t contain any infectious genome that a real virus has. It is for this reason that VLPs can be a very valuable tool in several applications like gene therapy, nanotechnology and diagnostics, and vaccination.
Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be produced using various cell culture production expression systems including bacteria and yeast cells, insect cell lines, mammalian cell lines and plant cells.
Track 20Current Research Development and Future Challenges in Vaccines
The field bargains on the whole with different sorts of antibodies, their blend, remedial impacts, and clinical improvements. The field completely covers every one of the headways, advancements of antibodies in each field of immunization. Immunizations treating jungle fever, malignancy, and numerous different sicknesses can be altogether considered under this field. The antibody can be characterized as an organic planning that gives dynamic gained invulnerability to a specific illness.
Track 21Infectious Diseases
Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites and may unfold between people. Infectious diseases square measure caused by microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites. Microorganisms that cause un-wellness square measure conjointly referred to as pathogens. Pathogens cause un-wellness either by disrupting the body traditional processes and/or stimulating the system to provide a defensive response, leading to high fever, inflammation and different symptoms. Infectious diseases are often unfold from one person to a different, for instance through contact with bodily fluids, by aerosols (through coughing and sneezing), or via a vector, for instance a dipteran. Infectious diseases square measure one amongst the leading causes of death worldwide. Several diseases become tough to regulate if the infectious agents evolve resistance to usually used medication. Scientists, square measure presently sorting out new approaches to treat infectious diseases, specialize in precisely however the pathogens modification and drug resistance evolves.
Track 22Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases
Many infectious diseases have similar signs and symptoms. Samples of your body fluids will generally reveal proof of the actual bug that is inflicting your health problem. This helps your doctor tailor your treatment. A technician obtains a sample of your blood by inserting a needle into a vein, typically in your arm. This painless take a look at needs you to urinate into instrumentality. To avoid potential contamination of the sample, you'll be tutored to cleanse your reproductive organ space with Associate in nursing antiseptic pad and to gather the wee-wee center. Samples from your throat, or alternative wet areas of your body, could also be obtained with a sterile swab. You will be tutored to gather a stool sample thus a research lab will check the sample for parasites and alternative organisms. This procedure obtains a sample of your humor through a needle fastidiously inserted between the bones of your lower spine. You may typically be asked to lie on your facet together with your knees force up toward your chest.
Track 23Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases
The epidemiology of infectious disease (ID) involves study of the prevalence, incidence and determinants of infections in populations. Infectious diseases remain one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. In addition to studying the rates of and risk factors for infectious disease, ID epidemiologists implement and evaluate interventions at the individual and community level
Track 24Bacterial and fungal Infectious Diseases
Bacterial Infectious Diseases: Bacteria causes several common infections like respiratory illness, wound infections, blood infections (sepsis) and sexually transmitted diseases like VD, and have additionally been to blame for many major sickness epidemics. The sickness is currently celebrated to be caused by the bacteria B and is treatable by antibiotics. Fungal infections are neglected by social and political communities. However, they have an effect on over a billion individuals, leading to just about 11·5 million severe infections and over 1·5 million deaths annually. There are huge advances in plant life medical specialty and antifungal drug development over the past twenty years, however most of the world’s population has not however benefited from these advances.
Track 25Infection Prevention, Control and Treatment
Infection prevention and management may be a scientific approach and sensible answer designed to forestall hurt caused by infection to patients and doctors. It's grounded in infectious diseases, medical specialty, scientific discipline and health system strengthening. IPC occupies a singular position within the field of patient safety and quality universal health coverage since it's relevant to doctors and patients at each single health-care encounter.